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農村“空心化”,農業農村部答疑并支招
作者:佚名 來源:21世紀經濟報道 時間:2019-6-5 16:18:27 點擊數:(0)0

6月5日,農業農村部舉行新聞發布會,對鄉村治理有關情況進行通報,并介紹了鄉村治理典型案例。

在發布會上,有記者提問我國一些地區農村的“空心化”現象的問題。

“現在注意到當前在我國一些地區農村的“空心化”現象比較突出,我們農業農村部在推進農村“空心化”村的鄉村治理方面有沒有一些舉措?在實踐中有沒有一些成效和一些好的經驗?”

對此,農業農村部農村合作經濟指導司司長張天佐表示,隨著我國城鎮化的推進,農村大量的人口轉移到城鎮,這是改革開放的成果,也是經濟社會發展的必然規律。

“空心村”的治理難題

農村1.jpg

張天佐表示,有一些村人口逐步減少,甚至出現了“空心化”的問題,對于“空心化”的鄉村治理,確實是當前面臨的一個重要的難題,這個問題的解決需要綜合施策,首先按照國家鄉村振興規劃的部署和要求,從國家層面、從各級政府層面對我們村莊的布局要做一個合理的規劃。

他進一步表示,國家五年鄉村振興規劃中,對村莊布局分成了四類,其中有一類就是逐步消亡的“空心村”,對于這一類的村莊,我們今后在基礎設施建設,包括一些社會管理方面要順應這種形勢發展的要求,逐步按照推進人口轉移消亡的路徑來開展工作。

“當然這個過程很長,不可能是一日之功,在推進的過程中,“空心村”的管理依然是一個非常重要的現實問題。”

張天佐介紹了他調研的情況:“從我調研的情況看,各地在實踐中也探索出很多好的辦法。第一,作為一個‘空心化’比較嚴重的村,它的組織建設還是必須要加強的,基層黨組織、村民自治組織,包括農村的社會組織和經濟組織的建設需要繼續加強。既然這個村還有人口居住,還有群體在那個地方生產生活,就需要社會管理。所以組織體系建設在消亡之前是不能削弱的,還要加強。”

其次,“空心村”可探索網格化的管理方式。黨員、村干部要按照分工分片地聯系群眾和農戶,盡量把每戶農民都納入到一個網格化管理的區域里。農民有什么訴求,基層的組織能夠隨時掌握;有什么困難,我們可以隨時幫著解決;農村有什么問題,可以隨時發現和處置。

鄉村振興要順應經濟發展規律

農村2.jpg

農業農村部農村合作經濟指導司司長張天佐(圖片來源:中國網)

最后,張天佐表示,對于這一類的“空心村”莊,要順應經濟發展的規律,通過行政的辦法和經濟的激勵措施鼓勵剩余人口向中心村轉移。

“在這個過程中,處理好農民的權益,包括集體經濟的收益權、土地的承包經營權和宅基地的使用權等,推動有序地轉移。對村莊原有的區域,宜墾則墾、宜林則林、宜草則草,進行復墾、還綠、還草,把這些區域科學有效地利用起來。”他表示。

暨南大學教授胡剛對21世紀經濟報道記者表示:“2018年,我國常住人口城鎮化率達到59.58%。而且城市化還在繼續推進。中國城市化的特點,是農村和小城市居民往大城市流動,形成城市群、城市圈。然后,隨著農村人口減少,農村居民的收入提升。鄉村振興并不意味著大批人口留在農村,鄉村人口是可以轉移的。隨著農村農業現代化,可以讓剩下的農村居民收入提升。”

數據顯示,我國農村數量在不斷減少。據報道,從2002年到2012年,中國的自然村數量從362萬個減少到273萬個。

【責任編輯:路麗莎

關鍵字:農村治理 鄉村振興 發展規律

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