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“稀土之父”徐光憲:稀土緊緊連著我和祖國
作者:佚名 來源:中國新聞網 時間:2019-6-5 12:56:56 點擊數:(0)0

業界有這樣的說法:“誰掌握了稀土,誰就全天候掌握了戰場。”作為工業“維生素”,稀土是隱形戰機、超導、核工業等高精尖領域必備的原料,提煉和加工難度極大,珍貴稀少。

中國是世界上最大的稀土生產國,擁有最完整的稀土產業鏈。今天,讓我們聆聽“稀土之父”徐光憲院士的傳奇故事。

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“我有稀土情結,永遠解不開……”

中國已探明的稀土儲量位列世界第一,卻曾因缺乏技術支撐,長期受制于人。多年前,由于萃取技術不過關,中國不得不低價出口稀土精礦和混合稀土,再以幾十倍甚至幾百倍的價格購進深加工的稀土產品,徐光憲決心打破這一尷尬局面。1972年,他所在的北京大學化學系接到了一個軍工任務——分離鐠釹。鐠釹,在希臘語中是雙生子的意思!是稀土元素中最難分彼此的一對。

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“稀土之父”徐光憲接受采訪截圖。資料圖

分離鐠釹是當時國際公認的大難題。“中國作為世界最大的稀土所有國,長期只能出口稀土精礦等初級產品,我們心里不舒服。所以,再難也要上。”這是年過半百的徐光憲人生中第三次改變研究方向,換專業,只有一個理由:此時此刻,祖國需要我。當時,鐠釹分離采用離子交換法是慣例,缺點是生產速度慢、成本高,徐光憲提出了采用萃取分離法來實現鐠釹分離。當時在國際上稀土萃取化學還是一門并不成熟的新興學科,但這難不倒曾長期從事核燃料萃取分離的徐光憲。

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“科學無國界,科學家有祖國。”在美國“禁止中國留學生歸國”法案正式生效前,徐光憲的妻子高小霞放棄了博士學位,與他一同歸國,他們被稱為化學界的“比翼鳥”。資料圖

徐光憲帶領學生查遍了國內外的相關資料,終于在美國人因失敗而放棄的推拉體系中找到了靈感,自主創新出一套串級萃取理論,把鐠釹分離后的純度提高到了創世界紀錄的99.99%,然而對于徐光憲來說,這只是傳奇的開始!徐光憲面對的最大挑戰是如何把已經成功的串級萃取理論真正應用于大規模工業生產。為獲得準確參數,他不得不使用繁瑣的“搖漏斗”的方法來模擬串級試驗,整套流程下來需要耗費一百多天的時間,如果得不到滿意的結果,一切又都要從頭再來。

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徐光憲采訪視頻截圖。資料圖

為了更快地推進稀土研究,徐光憲每周要工作80個小時。他白天“搖漏斗”,晚上琢磨理論,黑白連軸轉。研究量子化學出身的徐光憲,在理論歸納方面有著過人的天賦。他在實踐的基礎上推導出了一百多個化學公式,設計出最優化的工藝流程,并利用當時還不普及的計算機技術進行虛擬試驗,使原本復雜的稀土生產工藝徹底簡單化,原來需要一百多天才能完成的模擬實驗流程被縮短到不超過一星期!自此,我國稀土分離技術開始走在世界前列,根本改變了受制于人的困窘局面。

同行們幾乎都不相信,真的可以解決這項世界難題?讓徐光憲感動的是,在質疑中,當時的稀土第一大廠上海躍龍廠決定第一個嘗試他的技術。讓人驚訝的奇跡發生了:一排排看似貌不驚人的萃取箱像流水線一樣連接起來。只需要在這邊放入原料,在流水線另一端的不同出口就會源源不斷地輸出各種高純度的稀土元素。

“我怕二三十年后用光了,中國要變成稀土小國!”

這種一勞永逸的方法,被徐光憲稱為“一步放大”。這樣的專利,完全可以成為“一本萬利”,但他卻沒有“做生意”的打算。1978年,他率先辦起“全國串級萃取講習班”,把他的科研成果在國營工廠里無償推廣。

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稀土資源。資料圖

新的理論和方法廣泛用于實際生產,大大提高了中國稀土工業的競爭力,卻也帶來了新的問題。日本、美國等發達國家,把自己的工廠關了,用很便宜的價格買中國的稀土做儲備。中國已成為世界上最大的稀土出口國,但是自己沒有定價權。面對寶貴的稀土廉價出口、面對不可再生的稀土資源大量流失,徐光憲每天都如坐針氈。

【責任編輯:路麗莎

關鍵字:徐光憲 “稀土之父” 分離萃取技術 無償推廣

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