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脫貧第三方評估:公信力還差什么
作者:李雄鷹 陸華東 來源:半月談網 時間:2019-6-5 11:15:32 點擊數:(0)0

脫貧攻堅進入決勝階段,客觀公正地評估扶貧工作成效尤為重要,第三方評估這臺“質檢儀”的作用更加凸顯。

“娃娃臉”“聽不懂當地方言”“不熟悉扶貧工作,甚至不懂農村”“不接地氣”“外行評內行”“辛苦干了一年,大學生評估員20分鐘就把我們給判決了”“迎評耗時耗精力,影響日常扶貧工作持續開展”……這是不少扶貧干部對第三方的“第一印象”。

半月談記者最近在扶貧一線調研了解到,某些本應科學、中立的脫貧第三方評估,卻因為不接地氣的非專業操作以及評估結果與考核問責過度捆綁,讓部分扶貧干部不服氣,擔憂評估結果有失公正。受訪扶貧干部和專家呼吁,完善脫貧第三方評估機制和制度設計,精準評估,使評估結果更有說服力和公信力。

談評估:扶貧干部“四重憂”

一些基層扶貧干部談起第三方評估直搖頭,條件反射就是心驚膽顫。原因倒不是基層害怕接受評估,而是對第三方評估有四重擔憂。

一重憂:迎評過于耗時耗精力,加重基層負擔,對日常扶貧工作造成一定困擾。

不久前剛剛經歷過國家脫貧考核評估的西部某省扶貧干部告訴半月談記者,為迎接評估組的考核檢查,他們從去年8月開始,前前后后有半年時間全都耗在準備迎檢工作上,事無巨細,幾乎對全村所有家庭進行了再次摸底與重新建檔。“在國家層面的評估之前,省市縣各級都會組織評估,縣市評估通過了才能報給省里,省里組織第三方評估通過后,才會上報國家進行檢查。”這名扶貧干部說,這半年時間,就是反反復復被檢查,然后進行整改。

這名扶貧干部告訴半月談記者,他們將村民分為多種類型,并分別做準備工作,固化好各種證據。這些迎評工作消耗了他們大量時間,幾乎沒精力再干實事。

二重憂:第三方評估人員結構不盡優化,不夠接地氣,有的甚至外行評內行。

有些地方,第三方評估就是請高校大學生坐在辦公室里打電話隨機抽樣,通過電話的方式問貧困戶知不知道相關扶貧政策。而在入戶走訪時,有些大學生不懂方言,讓一線扶貧干部哭笑不得。剛剛結束第三方評估的廣東某扶貧干部反映,第三方評估組因為不懂地方話,又不信任駐村干部,花了1個多小時才找到合適的翻譯。中部某省一位扶貧干部也反映:“既然不讓駐村干部帶路,翻譯和帶路人員就顯得十分重要。翻譯理解的準確度直接影響到評估的精準度。”

部分第三方評估組成員入戶調查時一些不接地氣的問話,常常讓一線扶貧干部干著急,而且容易讓貧困戶產生誤解。“一些評估人員總是問貧困戶享受了什么扶貧政策,教育扶貧、健康扶貧怎么做的,貧困戶一聽這些名詞就蒙了,不知道具體指的是啥,有些人沒聽過這些名詞,直接就說沒有享受相關政策。”江蘇一位扶貧干部告訴半月談記者,如果評估人員能采取貧困戶易于理解的詢問方式,比如問生病有沒有醫療保障,家里獲得哪些扶貧收入,評估誤差也能有效減少。

部分貧困戶并不知道第一書記這個頭銜,評估中就出現這個問題,一些貧困戶明明認識經常幫助他的人,被問到時卻反應不過來這個人就是第一書記。

三重憂:部分設問主觀性強,滿意度測評未能全面聽取各方意見,得出結論有時失之于偏頗。

多位扶貧干部向半月談記者反映,最讓他們抓狂的就是評價標準中群眾滿意度問題。因為它取決于群眾的主觀判斷,一定程度受群眾的情緒和感情支配。在評估過程中,有些第三方評估對于回答不滿意的貧困戶,沒有詳細了解原因并對客觀情況加以分析,就得出結論。

一名扶貧干部說,有些貧困戶只要得到一些政策和幫扶,就會千恩萬謝,但有一些貧困戶即使得到再多幫扶,也不滿意,總希望獲得更多,甚至有攀比心理。結果一個不滿意,就有可能把幾年的幫扶努力全否決了。“一壞毀千好”,幫助貧困戶辦了一百件好事,但如果有一件沒辦好,貧困戶就有可能不滿意。

脫貧第三方評估一般是對某個村進行全覆蓋式的評估,非貧困戶也要被評估。“非貧困戶沒有享受到扶貧優惠政策,特別是一些生活水平剛剛處于貧困線上的非貧困戶,都可能是‘上訪戶’,怎么會給出滿意的評價?”一名扶貧干部說。

四重憂:有些第三方評估為抓問題而找問題,存在“找茬”之嫌,缺乏中立性。

知情者透露,之前在華北某縣評估省級貧困縣摘帽時,省級扶貧辦暗示要找出一些問題。為了堵住問題,市里早早將壓力傳導,各縣全縣都動員起來迎接評估。而評估組在一個貧困縣發現了漏評戶,就把信息轉給縣里去核實,一名縣長現場竟然緊張流淚。其實,出現一兩個漏評戶也在誤差范圍內,據專業人士評判,這幾個縣整體做得都不錯,按照標準也都能脫貧摘帽。

東部某省一扶貧干部說,有些家庭出現突發疾病致貧的情況,少數幾戶無法脫貧,往往就會否定扶貧全盤工作,從上到下問責,嚴重挫傷基層扶貧積極性。

據基層爆料,自己去年扶貧工作一年的付出和努力被一“字”否決。在當年省第三方評估時,在一戶智力二級殘疾的貧困戶家中,因該戶說不清駐村工作隊長姓名(注:考核調查問卷中有一問:你知道駐村工作隊隊長是誰嗎?),被當地扶貧部門追責。一個“否”字,直接取消了駐村工作隊當年評先評優資格。

問題根源在于把評估片面異化為問責工具,與考核過度捆綁

由第三方對社會政策進行評估,是國際通行做法,這種做法由一系列的設計指標、工作模式構成。“從初衷和原理來說,采取第三方評估可以避免上級對下級評估中可能存在的偏差,而最重要的意義就在于保證評估的客觀性和公正性。”北京大學廉政建設研究中心副主任莊德水認為,發揮第三方評估的專業優勢,可以讓政府從繁瑣的評估工作中解脫出來。

武漢大學社會學系研究員呂德文認為,第三方評估及其所運用的一套“科學”、標準的評價體系,的確比傳統的政策評估方式來得“客觀”一些。目前,很多地方評估主要是高校老師帶著學生進行,因為脫貧第三方評估短時間內需要大量人員參與,只有高校有這個人力。

“然而,所有的技術和評價,都有其限度。如果對客觀情況不加分析、不加辨別,機械執行,反而助長脫貧領域新的形式主義和官僚主義。”呂德文告訴半月談記者,當前的脫貧第三方評估問題主要是相關政府部門把第三方評估簡單化、片面化地作為監督手段和問責工具。

呂德文認為,政策評估主要是評估政策實施效果,并不直接服務于監督。實際操作中,第三方評估多數是省扶貧辦委托給第三方評估縣區扶貧成效。作為“發包方”的省級扶貧辦是規則的制定者,圍繞著脫貧攻堅的“問題”而展開工作。某些評估方為了贏得“發包方”的歡心,想盡辦法“抓”問題,找各貧困縣的瑕疵。

在很多地方,第三方評估結果與年度考核直接掛鉤,往往也成為問責工具。“當前的第三方評估,主要是省里組織對縣級單位進行的評估,是年度最終考核依據之一。評估中如果出現問題,很多人就會被追責。”東部一名扶貧干部說。

據呂德文調研觀察,把脫貧第三方評估結果簡單地與考核過度掛鉤相當普遍。他認為,其實這并不科學,在理論與實踐上合理性不足。

他舉例說:就抽樣調查的原理而言,A縣有1個漏評戶,B縣有2個漏評戶,都在誤差范圍內,最終呈現的分數可能是:A縣94分,B縣92分,但這并不能反映兩個縣的脫貧攻堅工作有何實質區別。然而,一些地方政府非要搞績效排名,把一兩分的差距作為優劣的判斷標準,有些機械,難免造成一些地方喊冤。

校準脫貧第三方評估“質檢儀”

半月談記者調研中了解到,相當一部分一線扶貧工作人員相信第三方評估有中立性,他們對進一步完善第三方評估機制提出建議和期盼。

“扶貧工作專業性要求高,需要熟悉扶貧和農村工作的人來參與評估,希望第三方評估機構能夠接上地氣,更加權威和專業。”廣東某扶貧干部建議,評估組應吸納有扶貧經驗的工作人員參與,這樣能省去很多溝通和解釋環節,而且評估結果也更能讓基層干部群眾接受和理解。

“大學生不是不可以參與第三方評估工作,但最好做輔助性工作,隊伍里應該有更專業和基層經驗豐富的人員。”莊德水建議,參與第三方評估人員除了科研機構外,還可邀請一些退休官員、基層干部參與,力求評估人員多元化和專業化。

基層干部呼吁,盡快改進第三方評估指標設計和測量方法。例如針對評估中的滿意度問題,第三方評估需結合幫扶成效來確定滿意度,應該充分了解貧困戶享受的政策后再做判斷。對于回答不滿意的貧困戶要詳細查詢政策或銀行流水賬。如果幫扶干部已經盡到責任,就不應該簡單地認同貧困戶的“不滿意”結論。

呂德文等業內專家建議,地方政府要合理使用脫貧第三方評估結果作為決策的參考依據,不能層層加碼,更不能太機械地看待分差,輕易否定基層扶貧工作成效。讓脫貧第三方評估回歸中立屬性,第三方評估結果與考核問責宜保持適當距離,避免誤傷基層扶貧積極性。

不少受訪基層干部還建議,適當縮減迎評時限,減少低效重復評估,切實為基層減負。針對評估或者考核過程中發現的問題,最好也能提出建設性對策,指導基層有效解決。

【責任編輯:馬越

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