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我國成為童書出版大國 原創發力童書市場添活力
作者:張賀 來源:人民網 時間:2019-6-4 11:02:50 點擊數:(0)0

過去10年,我國童書發展迅速,但少兒人均出版物擁有量不高,童書發展不平衡不充分問題還較為突出,具體表現在相同主題偏多,新作品偏少,原創力不足。國內各出版機構切實體會到了原創的不易,紛紛采取舉措進行鼓勵、扶持,同時不斷發現、培養創作人才,拓寬原創作品成長空間,為童書出版提供充足的發展后勁。

我國擁有世界上最大的兒童群體,他們對圖書和閱讀的旺盛需求推動我國成為童書出版大國。據統計,2017年我國出版新版少兒圖書2.3萬種,共有8.2億冊,無論是品種還是印數,都穩居世界第一。但出版界在迎來童書黃金時代的同時,也面臨著創新不足的困擾。

現狀

新書多、新作少,原創力不足

2018年,在開卷公司的少兒圖書暢銷書排行榜中沒有新書,出版時間最晚的是2016年,還有5種圖書出版時間接近或超過10年,同樣的現象也出現在網絡書店。在當當網2018年童書暢銷書排行榜銷量前20名中,只有3本(套)書是2018年出版的,其余都是出版兩三年甚至四五年的老書,一套2014年出版的《寫給兒童的中國歷史》仍然占據著暢銷書排行榜的首位。

“這個現象一方面反映了原創力不足,新人新作不多;另一方面也說明出版社打造的精品童書質量過硬、經久不衰。”接力出版社總編輯、兒童文學作家白冰說。

“跟風出版、重復出版也是原創力不足的具體體現。”中國出版協會少年兒童讀物工作委員會主任李學謙說,跟風、模仿一直是我國少兒出版的一個頑疾,導致市場上同質化圖書不少。

近年來,幼兒情緒管理圖書很受歡迎,但市場上此類選題圖書多達上千種,既有引進版也有原創版,既有繪本也有故事書,不但給家長造成選擇困難,也導致彼此之間競爭激烈。此外,童書中的公版書版本也極其繁多。據開卷公司統計,目前在售的《安徒生童話》《格林童話》各有2000多種,諸如注音版、繪本版、雙語版等,名目繁多,令人眼花繚亂。

“新書多,新作少。如果只看書號,我國童書品種確實很多,可是其中不少書是同一本書的不同版本,如果再去掉選題重復的書,那么新作其實并不算多。”白冰說。

在童書出版大熱的情況下,一些出版單位放松了質量管理。之前原國家新聞出版廣電總局開展出版物“質量管理2018”專項工作,查出65種出版物編校質量不合格,其中少兒類和教材教輔類有20種。

過去10年我國童書發展迅猛,年增速保持在20%至30%以上,童書銷售碼洋占到了圖書零售市場的1/4,是市場表現最好、發展潛力最大的板塊。但近年來童書市場的增速在放緩,據統計,少兒圖書零售市場2018年增幅為13.74%,2017年為21.18%,2016年為28.84%。

李學謙分析,和國際相比,我國少兒人均出版物擁有量不高,童書發展不平衡不充分問題還比較突出。如果能夠破除結構不合理等弊病,大力發展原創,我國童書仍有望保持中高速增長。

成因

原創成本高、周期長,缺乏人才

在激烈的市場競爭和國內外日益重視創新的背景下,發展原創已成為我國出版業的共識。近年來,原創童書不論是品種還是印數都大幅提升,各出版單位也深深體會到了原創的不易。

圖畫書(繪本)是我國起步較晚的童書品種,為了發現和培養更多創作人才,出版機構愛心樹童書從2017年開始與一家繪本工作室合作培訓圖畫書作者,4期培訓班共計招收了100余位學員,但最終簽約的作者只有一位。“既要能畫畫,又要能講故事,還要能積極主動配合編輯反復修改,能堅持下來的人很少。”愛心樹童書總編輯李昕說,很多學員都有自己的工作,畫繪本只是業余愛好。這位簽約作者的作品歷經兩年半的打磨,修改了無數遍,至今才只到初稿階段,離正式出版尚有距離。

“和引進版圖書相比,做原創成本高、投入大、周期長、收益不確定,需要編輯和作者靜下心來打磨。”李昕說。

去年年底,兒童文學作家劉海棲的新作《有鴿子的夏天》一出版就受到高度評價。劉海棲曾帶著尚未完成的稿件請評論家、同行和讀者座談提意見;作品最終出版前修改了8遍。中國出版協會原副主席海飛認為,這本書是“慢寫作、精出版”的代表。“有的作家寫得太快,結果半部好書很多,一整部好書太少。”海飛說,作家們要敢于“慢下來”,不要為了經濟效益而放松對品質的要求。

福建少年兒童出版社近日推出了我國第一部以蛟龍號深潛器為主題的兒童文學作品《深藍色的七千米》,青年作者于瀟湉用了整整1年的時間深入位于青島的國家深海基地采訪,與相關科研人員深入交流,搜集研究了蛟龍號的所有紀錄片、資料,在此基礎上才動筆寫作。

“培養和發現人才是當務之急。”李學謙說,只有新人不斷涌現,我國童書出版才能具備充足的發展后勁。

近年來,各大出版社紛紛設立童書獎,通過作品征集評比活動來吸引更多童書作者。在兒童文學作家左昡看來,在各出版社爭搶名家的環境下,相關獎項的設立不僅僅是對兒童文學作家的鼓舞,而且能夠召喚那些潛在的寫作者,壯大創作隊伍。

舉措

嚴管書號,績效考核向原創傾斜

在各方努力下,童書出版過多過濫的問題有所緩解。據統計,2017年新版童書品種比2016年減少了2588種,降低10.2%;重印少兒圖書增加了1390種,達到2萬種,增長7.6%,結構調整初顯成效。2017年,《沒頭腦和不高興》《狼王夢》《草房子》《米小圈上學記》等18種少兒圖書當年累計印數均達到或超過100萬冊,較2016年增加13種。

據分析,在嚴格管理書號等措施的調控下,去年和今年的童書新品種有可能繼續下降。利用有限的書號資源深耕細作,原創作品的成長空間將更大。

白冰表示,為了扶持原創,接力出版社在績效考核辦法上向原創傾斜,即使原創作品印數少、周期長,沒有達到平均利潤率,也要按照平均利潤率給編輯獎勵,“就是要鼓勵編輯們甘坐冷板凳,精雕細刻做原創。”

“創新是活力的源頭,我們必須把原創力和原創資源掌握在自己的手中。”李學謙說:“我們也呼吁國家加大對原創少兒出版的支持力度。”

李昕認為,政府對于原創繪本的扶持應該更加開放,對民營出版機構和國有出版社要一視同仁,“大家都在為中國的原創而努力,在評獎、政策扶持、資金扶持上應該堅持相同標準。”她說。

“提倡原創不是不要引進版童書,不能走向極端。引進版童書對于原創起到了很大的借鑒作用。我們的孩子要培養起全球視野,就必須和世界同步閱讀。”白冰提醒。

【責任編輯:馬越

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