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修復經典神劇,高清版要不要留住“年代濾鏡”
作者:蔣肖斌 來源:中國青年報 時間:2019-6-4 10:26:33 點擊數:(0)0

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《士兵突擊》修復前后對比

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古天樂版《神雕俠侶》修復前后對比

在家吹著電扇第N次看《射雕英雄傳》的孩子可能不會想到,多年之后,在電腦上重新打開心頭好時,會因為馬賽克一般的畫質而棄劇。

那,如果童年經典有了高清版呢?

畫質成為95后00后追經典的最大障礙

每一代人都有屬于自己的童年神劇:70后80后追小燕子,被《亮劍》激發出血性;90后跟著許三多學會什么是不拋棄不放棄,在《潛伏》中看到信仰的力量;而00后在《歡樂頌》中體驗到生活和真情都不容易。

這么多年過去了,經典依然是經典,經典依然有人看。優酷的觀看數據顯示,《天龍八部》《尋秦記》《封神榜》等經典老劇,依然位居熱播榜的TOP20甚至TOP10,熱度不輸新拍劇。

可是問題來了——老劇的畫質實在“太感人”。彈幕上經常可以看到這樣的吐槽,“這畫質,用兒童手表看都富裕”“全程馬賽克”“畫質差到不想看了”……阿里大文娛首席技術官莊卓然說,“棄劇率”是被互聯網平臺經常用到的數據,因畫質太差而在一分鐘內棄劇的比例達到70%,換言之,畫質成為95后00后追經典的最大障礙。

吐槽激發“斗志”。

近日,在第七屆中國網絡視聽大會上,中國網絡視聽節目服務協會副會長羅建輝說,此前,我國保護和修復老電影的工作主要由政府投入資金支持,截至2011年12月31日,實際財政撥款2.65億元,累計入庫影片數字模板4810部,而現在,互聯網企業成為影視劇修復的新力量。

對老片修復,現在兩種方式并存:一種是匠人式的手工修復,一種是使用互聯網、算法、人工智能等技術。前者一天能修一集電視劇已是專家級,后者目前的速度是一小時修復一部4K電影——而且仍在加速中。2017年,優酷啟動高清修復計劃,采用超分辨率視頻增強技術、AI機器學習技術等先進科技手段,批量去噪、去模糊、去劃痕、去閃爍、去抖動、高幀率等。

阿里巴巴資深技術專家江文斐介紹,最開始修復的是片源品質較好的好萊塢片和港片,從2018年11月開始,著手修復庫存和需求更大的國產劇。目前團隊三四十人,基本不是全職,速度也已達到一周能修復100多集。

從標清到高清,修舊如舊還是修舊如新?

清晰度和畫質是老劇最普遍存在的問題。在沒有高清電視機的年代,沒人覺得標清的畫質模糊,可現在一看,有的簡直是“奔跑的馬賽克”;有的劇年代久遠,存在嚴重色偏;有的經過多次轉存,畫面邊緣已是鋸齒狀……還有一些細節問題,比如,過去電視機屏幕的長寬比是4∶3,而現在主流是16∶9。

江文斐表示,以上問題都能通過技術手段解決,但修復并非“炫技”,仍須忠于原作。在修復《士兵突擊》時,他們發現網上所有數字版都模糊到缺乏細節,“我們的技術能做到添加細節,但盡可能不做無中生有的事,于是找到了這部劇的母本,重做膠片轉數字來提升清晰度。”

影視是一門藝術,所以,留給工程師們最大的挑戰也是藝術問題。羅建輝說,由于電視劇的拍攝技術更新快,修復除了要呈現高品質畫質,還要盡可能地保持作品的年代質感,這對影劇修復提出更優質、更高效、更標準化的要求。

作為一個技術男,江文斐并沒有“唯技術論”,他堅持修復的重點不在于用技術取代藝術,把標清變成高清就一步到位,而是提供一種工具,要不要修、修成什么樣,讓導演和觀眾來選擇。

“以前很多電視劇的色調是黃的,從技術上說,修成什么樣都能做到,那我們就要評估觀眾喜歡哪一種。”江文斐說,目前的策略是,抗日題材等觀看門檻不高的劇,就“修舊如新”,朝著符合當下審美趨勢的方向走;像《教父》那樣的片子,觀眾可能追求原汁原味的內容,就“修舊如舊”;還有一類風格明顯的電視劇,如TVB的港劇,也保持原貌。

2006年的電視劇《士兵突擊》經過修復,調整了顏色趨勢,使其更符合現代風格,同時調整了畫面比例,使其適合在手機、電腦、電視等不同設備上觀看。

江文斐說,之前在修復老電影時,修出的版本特別干凈,沒有那么多膠片噪點,這時候就面臨一個技術和藝術之間的選擇,“有的觀眾覺得沒噪點效果好,而另一部分觀眾覺得,這不像我當年看的電影了,像網紅臉。”于是,江文斐和小伙伴們又在修復版本上加了一些噪點,找回老電影的感覺。

“目前在修復老劇時,我們還沒有加噪點的操作。但隨著劇集制作水平的提高,一些新拍劇有了電影的感覺,也有噪點,那將來在修復這些劇集時,就要做相應處理。”江文斐說。

老劇修得好,讓年輕人愛上經典

具有修復價值的影視作品是海量的,先修什么呢?優酷目前的選擇依據,一種是根據觀看時長和彈幕的大數據統計,另一種是根據時下熱點,比如金庸去世,就修復了一批金庸劇。無論哪一種,出發角度都是觀眾。

江文斐是85后,堅持83版《射雕英雄傳》是“史上最佳”,且不接收辯駁。“每個人都有自己的青春,我也會有私心,讓團隊先把這部修好。”江文斐透露,自己在公司人緣頗好,因為經常有同事拉他過去商量,“能不能先把×××給修了?”

修完后怎么辦,難道是重新放回倉庫?羅建輝認為,老片修復不能停留在修復和保存,要重在傳播,在與觀眾的互動中延長作品的藝術生命,讓經典影劇修復既面向未來的觀眾,也服務當下的觀眾。

互聯網的優勢在于,把老片重新送到這一屆年輕人面前。

莊卓然介紹,2019年,隨著修復能力和數量的提升,優酷開設了大屏4K專區和小屏高清經典專區。除了《倚天屠龍記》《射雕英雄傳》《神雕俠侶》《鹿鼎記》《天龍八部》等金庸劇,還有四大名著系列、《康熙王朝》《雍正王朝》《包青天》《鐵齒銅牙紀曉嵐》《大宅門》《鄉村愛情》等經久不衰的經典電視劇,總計近4000集。

社科院新聞與傳播研究所世界傳媒研究中心秘書長冷凇說,自己小時候有英雄夢,愛看英雄片,前兩天把《上海灘》翻出來看,發現“開兩槍畫面都拉毛”,頗傷童年感情。“技術上的修復,現在應該已經不是問題。更重要的是,我們也在修復年輕人的觀念,讓他們覺得經典很棒”。

修復版老劇靜悄悄地上線后,在沒有任何運營活動的情況下,彈幕的畫風變了,變成“為什么大家都說畫質不行,我覺得挺不錯的呀。”“奇怪,我怎么有藍光1080p的”……觀看數據變化顯著:《江南鋤奸》修復后,播放量增長3倍,蘇有朋版《倚天屠龍記》增長451.8%;觀看人群的變化也十分明顯,《家有兒女》《愛情公寓》的觀眾,90后占比均超過65%。

瞧,年輕人不是不想看老片,修得好就能讓他們愛上經典。

視頻平臺也正在嘗試用專題、活動等方式,進一步增加老劇的曝光率和到達率。有時候還有意外之喜:一部2010年的電視劇《李衛當官之大內低手》上線后,突然涌進來很多觀眾,他們是來看趙麗穎的——當年只是不起眼的配角。

【責任編輯:董春平

關鍵字:修復 經典神劇 “年代濾鏡”

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