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“嚴出時代”的畢業論文季:痛苦源自平時修煉不足
作者: 葉雨婷 葉芃 來源:中國青年報 時間:2019-6-3 10:35:56 點擊數:(0)0

“嚴出時代”的畢業論文季

進入6月,不少大學中的打印店開始忙活起來。一本本論文從這里打印、裝訂,圍在機器前的大學生們眼中充滿著期待、欣慰,還有些許的如釋重負。這些能走進打印店的,都是這個畢業論文季的“人生贏家”,因為他們終于走到了畢業論文完成的最后一步。

而在打印店旁的宿舍中,在不遠處的圖書館里,仍有不少學生還在一遍遍修改論文。微博上“論文查重有多嚴格”這一閱讀量1.5億的熱門話題中都是他們的心聲。去年,大學進入“嚴出時代”之后,高校對于畢業論文的審核標準提高了很多。因此,這個論文季,對于不少大學生來說比往年難多了。

嚴字當頭,論文“劃水”已成過去式

“你在睡嗎?可是我在寫論文睡不了哎。”很多學生在朋友圈里深夜嘆息。

來自湖南省某高校的碩士畢業生曲微微發現,今年的畢業季比去年難熬。

“學校明顯對研究生要求比去年高多了。我們的論文查重標準是20%,以前即使論文沒有達到查重標準,改到30%多也可以‘劃水’通過,但是現在卡死20%。”曲微微說。

早在去年9月,教育部就已下發《關于狠抓新時代全國高等學校本科教育工作會議精神落實的通知》,強調各高校要全面梳理各門課程的教學內容,淘汰“水課”,打造“金課”,嚴把畢業出口關,堅決取消“清考”制度。

同年10月,教育部印發的《關于加快建設高水平本科教育全面提高人才培養能力的意見》簡稱“新時代高教40條”中更是明確提出,加強對畢業設計論文選題、開題、答辯等環節的全過程管理,對形式、內容、難度進行嚴格監控,提高畢業設計論文質量。加強本科生畢業設計(論文)管理,是狠抓本科教育教學的一項舉措。

今年的畢業季,不少高校在“嚴出”上加強了管理力度。4月,清華大學公布了最新修訂的《清華大學學生紀律處分管理規定實施細則》,其中的顯著變化就是對學術不端加大了處罰力度,學位論文抄襲者可被開除學籍。而原來的處罰,則是給予“記過以上處分”。

而在西南交通大學峨眉校區教務處5月6日發布的《關于做好2019屆本科畢業設計論文查重檢測工作的通知》顯示,本屆畢業設計論文查重檢測將增加大學生論文含本屆對比庫,凡發現同系、同校學生互相抄襲的,教務處將啟動調查程序,情況屬實的從嚴處理。

此外,學校還要求師生簽“承諾書”,承諾已經學習了教育部《學位論文作假行為處理辦法》《教育部辦公廳關于嚴厲查處高等學校學位論文買賣、代寫行為的通知》等,并嚴格執行教育部及學校有關畢業生學籍管理、課程考核及畢業設計(論文)文件要求。

“之前因為政策較寬,我們可以使用查重率不太準確但價格實惠的淘寶查重,但現在要求必須以知網為準,每次查重需要200多元。”曲微微說。

嚴字背后,論文季的痛苦是平時“修煉不足”

對于不少大學生來說,論文季的“難”是全流程的,從選題開題,可以一直持續到論文答辯。

在華中科技大學計算機學院的大四學生王旭東看來,寫論文本身不是最難的,難的是論文里的實驗部分。他表示,自己在畢業設計剛開始的時候,選題和開題答辯都比較簡單,而他還在暗自“慶幸”之時,就遇到了一系列的麻煩。

“因為一個小小的公式的錯誤,幾百條計算結果全部作廢,一個星期的努力功虧一簣。每次好不容易有了新的進展,拿去和老師學長討論,然后發現自己犯了很多低級錯誤,沒辦法只能從頭再來。另外,因為我的畢業設計是理論性研究,以我現在的能力無法通過嚴謹的實驗來證明理論結果,這也是我遇到的一個問題,就是沒有強有力的實踐來支撐理論上的結論。”

西安交通大學的大四畢業生于振遠表示,畢業的過程“困難特別多”。“我做畢業實驗需要用到一個比較復雜的試驗臺,但是這個試驗臺任何一個環節都會出問題。我們得從頭修到尾。實驗中,不知道的東西占大多數,真正能夠明白的占少數,我的數據出來都奇奇怪怪的”。

除了硬件本身的問題,精準的化學實驗對個人操作也有很高的要求。就在接受中國青年報·中青在線記者采訪的當天上午,于振遠還因操作的失誤搞壞了儀器,令他十分煩躁。

對于大學生在畢業論文季的“痛苦”,西南交通大學校長徐飛在接受中國青年報·中青在線記者專訪時表示,“學生在知識、能力、表達等方面都存在問題,而畢業論文寫作讓這些問題集聚在了一起,才導致學生苦不堪言。”

徐飛認為,現階段大學生畢業論文質量不高,主要體現在知識不扎實,學生掌握理論的深度與綜合能力欠缺,獨立思考、調查研究以及解決問題和分析問題的能力較差,這就導致畢業論文的研究選題沒有新意,內容沒有深度,創新性不足。

“如果學生平時做的很好,他在論文寫作時就不應該感到很痛苦,論文反而應該是他自我展現的舞臺。”徐飛說。

哪些能力可以破題“論文難

近年來,不少專家和高校教師表示,大學生畢業論文質量差,主要是因為他們在科學寫作方面的學習和訓練不足,導致他們人生中第一次寫論文就是在寫畢業論文。學生不知從何下手,指導老師苦不堪言,論文的質量也往往不高。

對此,徐飛認為,提高學生科學寫作水平十分必要,本科階段高年級應該開設相關選修課程,教授學生如何進行科學研究及學術寫作,或者是通過學術講座的方式,專門對學生如何寫作畢業論文進行指導。

去年,清華大學校長邱勇宣布面向2018級新生開設“寫作與溝通”課程,預計到2020年覆蓋所有本科生,并力爭面向研究生提供課程和指導。這引起了社會廣泛關注。5月底,清華大學寫作與溝通教學中心發布教師招聘啟事,面向海內外優秀學者、博士后及應屆博士生再次招聘10位教師。

據悉,課程采取1學分和2學分兩種并行模式。各個課堂共同講授的,主要是說理文寫作的范式以及如何去修改和完善一篇文章。更具體地說,主要包括選題立意、整理文章思路、建立邏輯結構、檢查與修改語病、優雅化表達等,但話題則由學生自主選擇。課程不強制使用統一教材,重要的是整個流程上訓練要求的一致性。

清華大學歷史系教授、教務處處長彭剛曾表示,寫作訓練首先應該是思維的訓練。“發現一個問題可以從不同的角度來思考,這對學生來說很重要。要會寫,先要學會思考,學會有條理、有層次的思考,這也是我自己期望的最高標準:寫作課程在鍛煉學生寫作能力的同時,也是一門讓學生‘開眼’的通識課”。

而對于學生在畢業論文季的“苦不堪言”,徐飛認為,除寫作能力的欠缺以外,還有以下幾方面原因。

從學生的角度來講,平時接觸的知識多,學得不夠扎實,存在浮光掠影、淺嘗輒止的現象。學生在日常的學習中過于依賴搜索引擎,在記憶和獨立思考方面存在不足。“什么東西都唾手可得,什么都有答案,學生會覺得‘我干嘛還去學’,這是蠻大的一個誤區”。

另一方面,學生學到的知識是碎片化的,沒有結構化、條理化、系統化,也沒有把別人的知識納入自己的知識體系。這就導致在最終需要條理化的文字呈現時,學生就“傻眼了”。

而且,“很多學校師資力量捉襟見肘,老師把更多的精力放到科研上。在教學方面,放在本科生與放在碩士生和博士生身上的精力又不一樣,本科生是老師精力投入最少的群體,這也是學生論文寫作難的重要原因。”

徐飛認為,盡管從學位條例的角度講,本科生不像碩士生和博士生,必須要提交論文才能取得學位,但堅持要求本科生提交畢業論文的慣例是很有必要的。“畢業論文可以全方位地、綜合地展示和檢驗學生掌握所學知識的程度,以及運用所學知識解決實際問題的能力,本科生寫畢業論文更重要的是過程,從選題到資料收集,再到論文組織、寫作、修改,最終成稿,這是一個最基礎的學術研究和學術訓練的過程”。

“畢業論文是學生的最后一次大作業。”徐飛說。

應采訪對象要求,曲微微、于振遠均為化名

(記者 葉雨婷 實習生 葉芃)

【責任編輯:董春平

關鍵字:“嚴出時代” 畢業論文季 痛苦

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