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干部一走,產業就散? 把扶貧干部的動能轉換為貧困戶的動能
作者:趙陽 楊靜 來源:半月談網 時間:2019-6-3 9:42:51 點擊數:(0)0

大批貧困戶靠扶貧產業脫貧 詹彥 

扶貧產業對于脫貧攻堅意義非同尋常。在扶貧干部的帶動下,一些貧困村有了自己的產業,很多貧困戶因此脫貧。但隨著扶貧干部的更替、離任,加之產業抗風險能力弱等原因,部分地方扶貧產業中途撤走、熄火,難以接續,面臨停擺危機。

一個扶貧干部,帶動一項扶貧產業

高旭平是山西社會主義學院派駐神池縣戎家梁村的第一書記,49歲的他在這個偏僻小山村一呆就是4年。近年來,他帶領村里的貧困戶發展“二代雜交豬”項目,圈養、散養、生態養殖模式不斷改進,養殖規模不斷擴大,從31頭發展到100多頭。

“散養豬項目符合當地實際,貧困戶們也增了收、脫了貧。”高旭平說,春節、中秋期間,豬肉被他單位的同事、親朋好友等搶購一空。

“去年向單位爭取的蜜蜂養殖扶貧資金超過50萬元。”從云南省委農辦派駐到西盟縣勐梭鎮班母村擔任第一書記的王波告訴半月談記者,在他的協調溝通下,去年4月一家本地蜂蜜企業在村里建設了“中華蜂養殖基地”。

他們采取政府購買蜜蜂、公司運營、貧困戶參與、村集體監督的模式,幫助貧困戶脫貧。

去年,“中華蜂養殖基地”已帶動100多戶貧困戶在蜜蜂養殖基地務工,貧困戶戶均出售的蜂蜜產品收入近千元。“跟著企業學養蜂技術,每個月還有2600元工資。”“直過民族”脫貧戶二妹說,現在她已經學會了培育蜂王、分群。

扶貧干部離任,扶貧產業停擺

當前,各地扶貧干部都在積極為貧困地區產業發展找路子、出主意,一些產業發展成效也在逐步顯現。但隨著駐村扶貧干部任期到期,干部輪換變動,部分地方扶貧產業接續發展面臨困難,可能導致扶貧產業出現停擺。

一些扶貧產品難以形成穩定市場,主要銷售對象是扶貧干部所在單位同事及親朋好友。

在一個貧困村采訪時,半月談記者了解到,在駐村工作隊隊長的帶領下,該村大力發展養殖業,養豬場經營很平穩,豬肉主要由駐村隊長的單位同事及親朋好友購買。但由于肉品不能進入商超,難以形成穩定市場,養殖規模不敢擴大。

據介紹,進入商超銷售的前提是豬肉一定要具備“二證二章一報告”,這些手續由有資質的屠宰企業出具。當地只有一家屠宰企業,已有固定的生豬調運渠道,對于新生的、飼養不太規范的、貨源品質不太穩定的扶貧豬(扶貧豬主要是靠傳統方式圈養),因懼怕出現食品安全問題,不愿也不敢合作,持拒收態度。

該名駐村隊長坦言,自己任期將滿,即將離任,雖然會有干部接任,但村里的養殖業未來能走多遠,不得而知。

這名駐村隊長的顧慮并非杞人憂天。在另外一個貧困村,扶貧工作隊、第一書記進駐后經過調研,因地制宜地規劃了農業產業集聚園區,園區項目規劃了種養、加工、冷貯、運輸等全產業鏈,并引進省內知名大型農企和村集體經濟組織合作,分3期實施。經多方協調努力,第一期年出欄2萬頭的生豬養殖項目建成投產,當年就為村集體經濟和貧困戶分得紅利。

按照園區規劃,第二年將進行二期項目生物有機肥料場的建設,將糞污加工為有機肥。這既解決環境污染問題,也為企業增加新的盈利點。

然而,在第一批次駐村工作隊隊長、第一書記期滿離任后,項目分段實施的第二、三期等后續工程便處于停滯狀態,繼任者前期未參與整體規劃,對前任的發展思路和其他資源不能有效接力,造成發展空當和斷層。

后續產業的無法推進,使豬場產生的糞污等無法加工成有機肥料,因不能為第三期的有機農副產品種植所用而產生環保問題。執法部門曾要求關閉,但因是扶貧產業被要求及時整改。村干部、村民們感嘆“原來的工作隊長、第一書記在就好了”。

產業鏈的斷層使一些農業園區只能依靠單一產業高負荷運轉。單一的農業產業抗風險性極弱,將來要么因政策執法關停,要么被市場淘汰,增加了鄉村振興的成本。

事實上,因扶貧干部離任導致后續產業發展難以為繼的情況并非個案。在一些貧困地區,隨著部分扶貧干部期滿離任,引發了催款潮,部分產業面臨停擺危機。

一些企業參與扶貧產業,沖著第一書記、扶貧隊員是信譽高的公職人員,和他們有良好關系,因此才愿意墊資承擔飼養相關費用。在知道扶貧干部要離任消息后,企業開始聯系清欠、催款。而集中清欠導致一些扶貧產業的儲備資金、現金流下降,部分扶貧產業面臨破產危機。

可持續發展難題考問扶貧產業

“一個產業鏈,脫貧一千萬。但產業最終要面向市場。”山西省鄉寧縣脫貧攻堅指揮部辦公室副主任劉科軍說,產業扶貧要遵循市場經濟規律,通過相應的龍頭企業帶動,與市場相銜接,實現生產、加工、銷售一體,形成完整穩固的產業鏈條,將產前、產中、產后都納入到產業經營體系。

不少地區在打好脫貧攻堅戰時,提出要構建良性的產業扶貧利益聯結機制,讓各經營主體之間共同分享利益,共同應對風險,經受市場的考驗。但構建良好的利益聯結機制和風險共擔機制說起來簡單,在實際操作中還有不少困難。

客觀來說,產業發展尤其是農業產業發展是一個需要持續投入的過程。有基層干部坦言,在產業選擇和引進企業,包括構建良好的利益聯結機制方面,有的沒有遵循市場規律。“干部走、產業散”的背后是企業害怕扶貧干部換人后,后續產業發展扶持政策不穩定,導致再投入的資產打水漂。

“扶貧產業中途撤走、熄火跟這些都有關系,但不是核心問題。”云南大學民族學與社會學學院教授向榮認為,關鍵是扶貧干部的動能和能量沒能轉換成為貧困戶的動能和能量。

部分扶貧干部認為,在發展扶貧產業時政府部門和企業應該各司其職,政府部門不能只想著讓企業來做慈善、無償奉獻,更要完善相關制度,為企業安心發展營造一個良好的環境,否則“來一任領導、換一個產業”最終損害的是群眾的利益。

“扶貧產業持續發展還是要回歸到發展主體上來。”向榮認為,產業扶貧的重點在于提高扶貧對象參與程度,推進其信心和能力建設,完善貧困戶與相關企業或政府乃至社會力量的溝通機制,讓貧困戶發揮主體作用。

【責任編輯:馬越


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