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中國歷代“嬰戲圖”:古代的兒童如何愉快的玩耍
作者:佚名 來源:人民網 時間:2019-5-28 16:50:27 點擊數:(0)0

中國很早已有繪畫嬰孩的傳統,到了唐宋時期技巧漸趨成熟,發展至宋元以后,成果斐然。今天,小編為大家整理了歷代“嬰戲圖”,看看古代的兒童如何愉快的玩耍。

六一兒童節到了,相信大家已紛紛開啟了回憶模式,那首《童年》縈繞心田:“池塘邊的榕樹上/知了在聲聲叫著夏天……等待游戲的童年”。兒時玩樂的點滴,恍如隔日,難以忘懷。

“嬰戲圖” 是描繪兒童游戲時的畫作,又稱“戲嬰圖”,是中國人物畫的一種,以小孩為主要繪畫對象,表現童真。中國很早已有繪畫嬰孩的傳統,到了唐宋時期技巧漸趨成熟,發展至宋元以后,成果斐然。今天,小編為大家整理了歷代“嬰戲圖”,看看古代的兒童如何愉快的玩耍。

圖1 周昉.jpg

周昉《戲嬰圖》30.8×48.5cm 美國大都會美術館藏

圖中畫了5個女子與7個幼孩嬉戲、為幼孩洗浴、穿衣的生活場景。圖上方是兩女子在給孩童洗澡和洗頭,澡盆中一裸身的小孩學著用小手擦洗頭頸,而盆后站著的一頑童似乎正欲戲惹他。圖右是一個女子在與兩個孩童游戲,一孩子坐著,伸展雙手想從女子手中接什么,而另一孩子則放棄正在玩的玩具,匍匐著伸出一手,意欲爭奪。圖左的兩個女子正在給孩子穿衣。3組圖各行其事,卻又相互呼應,每一組的大人和孩子的組合又各具特色,尤其是孩子,或站,或坐,或匍匐,或趴于背上,萌態盡顯。陪伴是對孩子最好的愛!

圖2 莫高窟.jpg

莫高窟第23窟 北壁壁畫

4個胖乎乎的小朋友好像在玩“聚沙成塔”的游戲,沙堆已過一人高,但他們仍在賣力地往上堆。從古至今,玩沙玩土似乎是孩子們最喜愛的游戲,小時候誰沒有迷戀過沙堆、玩泥土。

圖3 莫高窟.jpg

莫高窟第112窟 西龕西壁壁畫

7個孩子在采花,有3個小孩已經爬上了大樹,大家或摘或拾,好不熱鬧。那3個爬上樹的小朋友雙足立于獨木,如同歷險一般,他們順便還能“登高”看景,似乎很帶勁。

圖4 莫高窟.jpg

莫高窟第217窟 北壁壁畫

3個男孩腳穿布襪,在玩疊羅漢的游戲,上面的小孩踏著下面的兩個小孩成功地立了起來。小朋友一臉認真謹慎的樣子,生怕摔下來。

圖5 蘇焯.jpg

蘇焯《端陽戲嬰圖》 88.9×51.3cm 臺北故宮博物院藏

《端陽戲嬰圖》描繪的是3個粉粧玉琢的胖娃娃在端午時節嬉戲玩耍的情景。穿紅色肚兜的孩子左手拿著石榴,右手用繩系著蟾蜍,一臉得意的神情,正要驚嚇較小的孩子,連手上的蛤蟆也閃著狡猾得意的笑容,而受到驚嚇的小孩則蹲在地上,雙手護著頭,眉頭緊蹙,十分害怕,不由得令人心生愛憐,好在穿綠色肚兜的“勇士”一個箭步趕來,神情堅定地要阻止這場惡作劇。3個孩童的手與腳皆帶金釧玉飾,身上則佩掛長命鎖,表示其出身的驕貴。

圖6 佚名.jpg

佚名《冬日嬰戲圖》196.2×107.1cm 臺北故宮博物院藏

據小編猜測,圖中描繪的應該是姐弟倆。姐姐拿著彩旗,弟弟用極細的紅線提著一根孔雀毛,引逗小貓。小貓雖與他們隔有一段距離,可是眼瞳望向姐弟倆手里的玩具,知道是好玩的玩具,舉爪欲撲,似乎把弟弟嚇著了,趕緊躲在姐姐身后。

圖7 北宋蘇1.jpg

北宋 蘇漢臣《秋庭戲嬰圖》197.5×108.7cm 臺北故宮博物院藏

本幅畫庭院中,姊弟二人圍著小圓凳,聚精會神地玩“推棗磨”游戲:一枚鮮棗削去半邊,露出棗核,用三根小木棍插在棗上,作三足立于桌上,棗核朝上;另用一根細竹蔑,兩端各插一枚小棗,再將竹蔑小心翼翼擱在棗核上,輕輕一推,便會旋轉不已。不遠處的圓凳上、草地上,還散置著轉盤、小佛塔、鐃鈸等精致的玩具。姐弟倆有那么多玩具,應該生長于達官貴人之家吧。

圖8 北宋蘇2.jpg

北宋 蘇漢臣《雜技戲孩圖》團扇 20.4×20.4cm 臺北故宮博物院藏

圖中雜技藝人正施展絕技,口中唱詞,手中擊節敲鼓,兩個小兒不覺被深深吸引住,聽得聚精會神。

圖9 蘇三.jpg

北宋 蘇漢臣《開泰圖》151×103cm 臺北故宮博物院藏

畫中的孩童歡樂地騎在一只大羊背上,身邊圍繞著各色大小造型不一、矯健歡騰的小羊,神氣十足。據了解,北宋時期的日常生活中,羊并非騎乘的動物,但畫中白羊被配上如神駿寶象般的鞍轡,散發著非同一般的宮廷貴氣。群羊在草地中或飲,或食,或奔走,或徜徉,悠然自得的環繞在童子身邊。畫面背后還以長松梅花做背景,點有一雙喜鵲,意取“喜上眉梢”。童子神采飛揚,群羊熱鬧歡騰,整幅畫面充滿了一派富麗祥和之氣。那白胖小子豐潤柔軟的模樣躍然于紙上,栩栩如生,令人心生愛憐。

圖10 蘇四.jpg

北宋 蘇漢臣《侲童傀儡圖》23.6×23.2cm 東京國立博物館藏

宋朝社會流行木偶戲,宋人稱之為“傀儡戲”。本來用于表演的傀儡,被制成了兒童玩具,《夢粱錄》列出的“影戲線索、傀儡兒、獅子、貓兒”,都是給兒童玩耍的玩具傀儡。臺北故宮博物院收藏有一幅傳為宋人的《傀儡嬰戲圖》,便描繪了3名童子在表演提絲傀儡戲。

圖11 劉松年.jpg

南宋 劉松年《傀儡嬰戲圖》 尺寸不詳 臺北故宮博物院藏

畫作描繪了4個孩子在模仿傀儡戲的場景,一個孩子在幕后操縱著傀儡木偶,前面兩個孩子正高興地充當觀眾,旁邊另一個孩子邊看邊擊鼓,似乎在幫表演者“配樂”,煞有其事。

圖12 李高.jpg

南宋 李嵩《骷髏幻戲圖》27×26.3cm 北京故宮博物院藏

圖13 骷顱.jpg

《骷髏幻戲圖》局部

畫面中一大骷髏席地而坐,用懸絲在操縱著一個小骷髏。大骷髏旁有一副演傀儡戲擔子,擔上有草席、雨傘等物,骷髏身后有一哺乳嬰兒的婦人,或許是傀儡戲藝人的妻子。大骷髏坐于地上,左腿曲折著地,右腿弓起,左手按于左大腿骨近膝蓋骨處,右手提線索控制小骷髏。小骷髏對面有一個小孩兒,昂首伸右臂,像是竭盡全力去抓小骷髏,似乎也想把玩一下。

通過以上幾幅畫作,我們可想而知傀儡戲在當時的流行程度。

圖14 蘇寒磣.jpg

北宋 蘇漢臣(傳)《長春百子圖》30.6×521.9cm 臺北故宮博物院藏

此幅描繪春、夏、秋、冬四時百童嬉戲情景,有蕩秋千、騎木馬、下棋、釣魚、采荷、撲蝶、斗蟋蟀、踢球等等各種游戲。戶外庭院,四季景色分明,各年齡段的小朋友們盡興玩耍,個個天真活潑。真是隔著屏幕都能聽到他們的嬉笑聲,感受到那份無憂無慮的快樂。【以下為局部圖(從左至右)】

圖22.jpg

北宋 蘇漢臣《灌佛戲嬰圖》159.8×70.6cm 臺北故宮博物院

此圖畫中的孩子們在玩“過家家”:一個孩子跪下模仿大人禮佛,一個孩子手抬佛像,還有一個孩子手持水瓶灌佛,另一孩童手捧花籃,裝扮成佛教信徒模樣,模仿浴佛儀式。

圖23.jpg

佚名《嬰戲圖》尺寸不詳 美國大都會藝術博物館藏

圖中好多小朋友在一個庭院里玩耍,感覺類似我們今天的幼兒園。圖中小朋友們三五成組,分別沉侵在各自的游戲之中:有的在滑滑梯,有的在騎竹馬,有的湊在一起講故事,有的在敲小鼓……氣氛歡樂融洽。

圖24.jpg

陳洪綬《戲嬰圖》150×67.3cm 北京故宮博物院藏

圖25.jpg

《戲嬰圖》局部

圖中一太湖石豎立,石前放一尊雕琢精致的佛像和供用的銅塔。佛前,兩名兒童在拜佛,一兒童在獻花,另一兒童在跪著擦拭銅塔。四人神態專注,收斂起頑皮,露出莊重,一名兒童磕頭時,開襠褲露出胖臀,令人忍俊不禁。

圖26.jpg

佚名《嬰戲圖冊之斗草圖》11×21cm 北京故宮博物院藏

在古代,“斗草”是流傳在我國民間的一種娛樂風俗。每逢春夏,風和日麗,草長鶯飛,男女老少特別是孩童和婦女們紛紛相約到郊外游玩斗草。

圖27.jpg

金廷標《冰戲圖》121×64.8cm 北京故宮博物院藏

冬季寒風蕭瑟,景物單調,但是對于活潑好動的孩童來說依然不乏游戲項目。10個小伙伴來到結冰的池塘邊,膽大的幾個先下到了冰面上,可是太滑了,一不小心就摔了個仰面朝天,想再站起來也不容易,只能勉力支撐著,而岸上的同伴則嬉笑著,躍躍欲試。

【責任編輯:董春平

關鍵字:“嬰戲圖” 古代的兒童 玩耍

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