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網絡捐款平臺屢次被曝信息失真、審核不嚴 你還信嗎?
作者:何欣禹 來源:人民日報海外版 時間:2019-5-16 11:16:32 點擊數:(0)0

曾有網絡主播做“偽慈善”,直播結束后就收回捐款

網絡捐款,你還信嗎?

點擊、付款、轉發……只需輕輕地動動手指,你就可能為另一個家庭帶來希望。在朋友圈,為患病親友等籌款的網絡求助信息,你一定不會陌生。近年來,“輕松籌”“愛心籌”等互聯網募捐信息平臺快速發展,為連接網友愛心、助力善款籌集提供了便利。然而,這一新的募捐形式卻屢次被曝信息失真、審核不嚴,引發公眾對網絡募捐誠信問題的討論。

審核標準引來爭議

近日,某相聲演員因網絡募捐事件陷入了輿論漩渦。據悉,年僅33歲的他因突發腦溢血住院,其家人在互聯網募捐信息平臺“水滴籌”發起100萬元籌款項目,熱心網友紛紛幫助捐款、轉發。這本是一件令人同情的事,但有網友指出這位相聲演員在北京有兩套房、一輛車,還有醫保。盡管其妻子回應稱家中兩套房均為父母名下的公租房,自己無權限轉賣,并列舉證據證實其并非騙捐。然而,這一爭議事件把公眾的目光再次聚焦到互聯網募捐信息平臺上。

什么樣的人可以發起大病求助?工資收入、房屋財產、車輛財產等個人或家庭資產怎樣核實?網友提出的這些疑問指向了當下網絡救助平臺的漏洞所在。據了解,目前,“輕松籌”“水滴籌”“愛心籌”等主要互聯網募捐信息平臺在信息審核上并不能保證100%真實或準確。三大平臺在《個人求助信息發布條款》《用戶協議》和《隱私政策》等相關條款中均有聲明——平臺并不能保證發起人信息的完全真實或完全準確,捐款人應理性分析、判斷后決定是否捐贈、資助。

這一局限既來源于籌款平臺審核機制的不足,也來源于實際操作中的困難。“輕松籌”聯合創始人兼總裁于亮指出,個人身份、銀行賬戶、醫院病情等可以通過人工去核實,但家庭資產只能靠患者及家屬自證。資產可能在個人名下,也可能在家庭名下,想要準確地查詢實屬不易。

至于什么樣的人應該得到救助,更是沒有統一的標準。有些本是赤貧家庭,再遇到家人重病無疑是雪上加霜;而有些僅僅只是家有病人,想要維持此前正常的生活水平而已。在尚未健全的審核機制下,不同家庭狀況的人在同一平臺發出眾籌,難免引發爭議。

騙捐詐捐”透支網友信任

截至目前,民政部指定的互聯網募捐信息平臺共有20家,在2018年共有超過84.6億人次網友點擊、關注和參與,募集善款總額超過31.7億元,同比增長26.8%。參與度之高,體現了人們慈善意識的提升。互聯網眾籌,籌的不僅是金錢,更有無數網友的善意和信任。然而,諸多爭議事件的發生,也使這些善意和信任慢慢被透支。

2016年,深圳媒體人羅爾為自己患有白血病的女兒發文《羅一笑,你給我站住》籌款,刷爆朋友圈,最后卻被曝出羅爾本人名下有3套房產。同年,多名網絡主播被指在四川涼山彝族自治州某農村做“偽慈善”,直播結束后就收回捐款,甚至還為增加效果往孩子臉上抹泥。此類“騙捐”“詐捐”事件,使網絡募捐誠信度遭到質疑。

此外,還有人發現,部分電商平臺存在制作虛假材料的產業鏈。為騙取醫保社保和捐款,一批制作虛假病歷、票據材料的黑色產業滋生。門診全套病例、住院全套病例甚至病情嚴重程度都可根據個人定制,還配有專業寫手撰寫籌款文案、商家負責推廣,以便獲得更多網友的關注和捐款。這些都是互聯網募捐行業健康發展的阻礙。

“眾籌平臺提高自身審核水平的同時,有關部門應加大源頭治理,嚴厲打擊販賣兜售虛假病歷等行為。”于亮說。

維護網絡慈善公信力

其實,早在2016年,民政部等四部委就聯合印發了《公開募捐平臺服務管理辦法》,其中第十條明確規定,個人為了解決自己或者家庭的困難,通過廣播、電視、報刊以及網絡服務提供者、電信運營商發布求助信息時,廣播、電視、報刊以及網絡服務提供者、電信運營商應當在顯著位置向公眾進行風險防范提示,告知其信息不屬于慈善公開募捐信息,真實性由信息發布個人負責。

針對此次那位相聲演員網捐事件,民政部回應稱,個人求助不屬于慈善募捐,不在民政部法定監管職責范圍內,但由于影響到慈善領域秩序規范,民政部將引導平臺修訂自律公約,針對群眾關切持續完善自律機制,也將動員其他平臺加入自律。

“水滴籌”創始人沈鵬回應稱,“水滴籌”未來會更嚴謹,更加多維度地進行風險控制,并將聯合其他眾籌平臺對自律公約進行迭代。他表示,用假病歷等虛假資料去騙錢的是極少數,籌款人大多是真實的,不希望大眾被個別負面案例誤導。

隨著互聯網募捐信息平臺快速發展,進一步規范互聯網公開募捐信息平臺勢在必行。此前,民政部公布了《慈善組織互聯網公開募捐信息平臺基本技術規范》《慈善組織互聯網公開募捐信息平臺基本管理規范》兩項推薦性行業標準,對募捐主體、平臺責任作了規定。2018年10月,“愛心籌”“輕松籌”“水滴籌”3家平臺聯合簽署發布《個人大病求助互聯網服務平臺自律倡議書及自律公約》,健全事前審查、提款公示、在線舉報等功能,建立求助人“黑名單”,旨在強化信用約束,提升公開透明,歡迎社會監督。

但同時也要看到,對于一個網絡平臺來說,在對存款、房產、車輛等個人或家庭信息的審核中,客觀上確實有一定的難度。要讓網絡慈善事業健康發展、讓網絡平臺承擔起責任,也要給予他們必要的幫助,建立起一個互聯互通的信息核對網絡。讓公眾愛心不被過度消費,從而維護網絡慈善的公信力。

【責任編輯:路麗莎

關鍵字:捐款平臺 信息失真 審核不嚴

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