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燕莊村的馬幫和駝隊
作者:王茂盛? 來源:微信公號“桑干流韻” 時間:2019-3-12 8:42:18 點擊數:(0)0

朔州市山陰縣燕莊村,因其背倚燕家山而得名,又因旅游勝景煙霞洞而名揚塞外,成為山西省第五批傳統村落。對于燕莊村的過往,我們不再嘮叨。今天,從另一個視角談談燕莊村的馬幫和駝隊,以此喚醒一個曾經艱辛而輝煌的“絲路”家族鮮為人知的歷史畫卷。

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這個曾經遠涉巴里坤(現新疆哈密巴里坤縣)和歸化城(今呼和浩特舊城)的家族就是燕莊村李氏家族。

李氏于明末從雁門關以南的定襄縣中霍村遷徙于山陰縣燕莊村,始遷祖李振川。這個家族秉承著所有山西人的性格特征,勤勞吃苦,同時沿襲了山西商人的精明與果敢。初始,村莊選于寶峰山腳猴兒嘴峪口,并于峪口外較平坦的地界建有德厚堂家祠,逐漸擴展為后來的寶峰寺。

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李振川在燕莊村以業農為主,且耕且讀,下傳到李連忠這一代,共為八代。李連忠生七子,除四子殤亡外,其余六子分別是李長成、李長榮、李長茂、李長美、李長盛、李長林。李連忠的五子李長美,時為皇清例贈國學生。從這里可以看出,李長美已經開始注重教育,而且有子孫取得了入國子監的好成績。

正是這個李長美,才使得這個世代為農的家族,從專業從事躬耕逐步向商業貿易領域挺進,成就了一個龐大的家族貿易團體。這個團隊的足跡曾經遠涉新疆哈密巴里坤和內蒙古自治區呼和浩特市,甚至更遠的外蒙古托克托一帶,成為雁門關外舉足輕重的馬幫和駝隊,同時也成就了李氏家族的“絲路”豪情。

李長美,生于道光二十三年,即1843年,卒于光緒三十年,即1904年,享年60歲。父親李連忠,母親張氏。在弟兄七人中,李長美排行老五,也就是后代所謂的“五掌柜”。據《李長美及妻合葬墓碑》載:“自公首倡義舉,身養駱駝,富冠一鄉……”。不說其他家族兄弟,單李長美一人在卒年時“遺駱駝九十六個,驢騾馬九頭,田地十三頃,余住宅五處,鋪產五所……”。據今天的李氏家族后裔講,當時的馬幫和駝隊已經發展到上千只,每當出發時,浩浩蕩蕩,氣勢盈天,場面蔚為壯觀。加之其他兄弟的大力支持,其家業擴大到大同府周邊地區,如懷仁吳家窯,山陰岱岳等地。尤其六弟李長盛將其家族事業進一步發揚光大,創立了“德厚堂”。據《李長盛及妻合葬墓碑》載:李長盛“天性耿耿,英姿勃勃。效南陽兮,耕田始終不怠;法牽牛兮,服賈遠近有聲;孝友治家……”。

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通過幾代人的共同努力,到了清朝末期,李氏產業逐漸興隆,成為塞北著名商賈。積累了大量資金的李氏家族,和所有山西商人一樣,修建家園是他們最大的心愿。族人相商后,決定先在寶峰寺東南側建李家大院。中華民國時期,村落逐漸向東延伸,形成以老爺廟為核心的村莊建筑格局。

馬幫和駝隊的建立既是生活所需,更是地理環境所逼。馬幫是初始運輸工具,便于穿山趟溪,主要是為了馱運生活必需品,如煤炭、瓷器、柴火、糧食等。這是一種非常艱辛的生存方式,它不僅要選拔體格健碩,毛色光滑的中年好馬,對趕馬人也有特殊要求:膽大心細,力氣相對大的,畢竟在起馱貨物時,非借助人的外力而無法置于馬身上的。因而,這趕馬人,實際上就是個“抬馱人”。輕者,一人肩抗;重者,二人相抬;再重者,多人參與。加上山路崎嶇,林木茂密,野獸出沒,組隊營運是必然選擇。

組建單一的馬隊,常有山賊覬覦。當時流傳較為厲害的山賊是“張家兄弟”。他們深居簡出,游走于寶峰山一帶,劫掠貨物,打鬧“過路費”,收取“保護費”,給馬幫造成一定的危害。在今天的猴兒嘴山峪口,至今有“張家兄弟”居住的石洞和對弈的石棋盤。《山西通志》稱:“燕家洞,在縣(懷仁)西南60里要寨村。”也許,這個“要寨村”就是今天燕莊村的最早名稱,亦或今天腰寨村的最早得名,亦或是《通志》的誤載。

清道光時期,懷仁西山一帶,隨著煤炭開采的不斷進步,伴生了諸多相關產業,如陶瓷制品、鐵器冶煉、藥材加工、毛皮加工等。黃花梁以北和寶峰山陰腹地的日用陶瓷產業得到了長足的發展。懷仁陶瓷歷史悠久,工藝精湛,早在遼宋時期就有“陶埴一技,獨擅北方”之稱。最著名的有張毛圪塔的碗窯,也就是后來的“吳家窯”,地處山陰、懷仁、應縣三縣交界的石莊村(原屬山陰,后劃歸懷仁)以“紅瓦盆”著稱;山區有以大器(缸、罐)為主的“張家溝”“陸家窯”(原王剛寨)“劉家窯”(現山陰縣下石井村)等。隨著這些作坊的逐年增加和貨物貿易的不斷完善,許多產品開始向外流動。其中,最大的流通地當屬水草豐美的內蒙古河套一帶。一些精明的商人開始著眼于這一“商機”。最早捕捉這一商機的正是以李長美為首的燕莊村李氏家族。

馬幫已無法適應長途販運。與其小打小鬧,不如聯合建隊!這就是李長美弟兄的遠景。于是乎,李氏駝隊應運而生。

最初的路線是:向西北穿越寶峰山的猴兒嘴山口,達陸家窯、腰寨;向北穿過偏嶺口,到達偏嶺、張家堡、酸次河等地;向西穿越口子梁,到達上、下喇叭、玉井、口前,直至左、右衛;向東南過永靜城、北周莊、西官道等地,與黃花梁鄭莊村附近的大于口相接,北走懷仁,出大峪口,過吳家窯、左、右衛等地。這些路經的最后的目標集中于內蒙古呼和浩特,或更遠的托克托,置換的主要產品是陶瓷、煤炭、糧食、藥材、木材、皮毛、煙酒等。  

隨著貿易的不斷加深,李氏弟兄們從內蒙搗鼓回一批適宜長途運輸的駱駝,正式組建駝隊。置換的產品從最初的陶瓷、煤炭、糧食、藥材、木材、皮毛、煙酒等,擴大到各個領域。其販運路線又向西擴展,直至新疆維吾爾自治區。馬幫和駝隊經由西安,與其他馬幫和駝隊聯合,最終挺進于今天的新疆維吾爾自治區巴里坤,完成了山西晉北商人與貴州、云南等南方商人的大會合,為我國陸地“絲綢之路”商業傳播和文化交流作出了應有的貢獻。

【責任編輯宿義

 


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